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Herniated Disc

A herniated disc occurs when the inner portion of a spinal disc protrudes through a tear in the outer layer of the spinal disc. 

The spinal disc has two layers: the outer annulus fibrosus and the inner nucleus pulposus.

The annulus fibrosus comprises the outer portion, enclosing the jelly-like nucleus pulposus. The annulus fibrosus is made up of 22-25 layers of fibers that connect to the vertebrae above and below the disc.

The annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus distribute force and stress placed on the spine to prevent the vertebrae from rubbing against each other and ensure that nerves around the spine don’t become pinched or compressed.

When tears occur, the nucleus pulposus may press against nearby spinal nerves, causing painful symptoms. These tears in the spinal disc typically occur as a result of age-related degeneration, trauma, repetitive stress, and excessive pressure on the spine.